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For example, at the top of each data center server rack may sit two leaf switches, known as Top of Rack ToR switches. Each server in the rack connects to both of the ToR switches, to ensure redundancy. Each ToR switch also connects to multiple spine layer switches.
In some instances, each leaf switch may connect to every spine switch. That means each leaf switch — and each device connected to those switches — is just a single hop away from any other device in the data center. Rather, all their ports can be used to support leaf switches, using either Layer 2 switching or Layer 3 routing. Leaf-spine networks provide a number of benefits as compared to traditional three-tier client-server network designs, including:.
Pica8, a white box networking vendor, for example, has a solution that enables an enterprise-wide leaf-spine network. That means a network administrator can literally manage hundreds of switches as if they were one — dramatically lowering operations costs. PICOS also runs on a range of white box switches , making it even more cost-effective. This software is explicitly designed to help enterprise customers of all sizes who need to both reduce OpEx and upgrade their networks to a modern two-tier architecture, moving away from archaic and costly switch-stacks and chassis to an easily deployed leaf-and-spine architecture for the first time.
In the data center itself, 2-tier leaf-and-spine deployments have become one of the most common network architectures used by the industry.
This proven new design offers exactly the kind of flexibility and scalability benefits that could be of tremendous value to the entire enterprise network — if the complexity of deployment and management that exists today can somehow be extracted from the architecture. Skip to content. Employing leaf-spine networks in the larger enterprise: Network Glossary Definition. Leaf-spine networks provide a number of benefits as compared to traditional three-tier client-server network designs, including: Increased redundancy, because each access switch connects to multiple if not all spine switches, along with the use of protocols such as Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links TRILL and Shortest Path Bridging SPB , that allow traffic to flow across multiple available routes.
In the spine-leaf architecture, each leaf switch is connected to each spine switch. With this design, any server can communicate with any other server, and there is no more than one interconnected switch path between any two leaf switches. The spine-leaf architecture has become a popular data center architecture, bringing many advantages to the data center , such as scalability, network performance, etc.
The benefits of spine-leaf architecture in modern networks are summarized here in three points. Increased redundancy: The spine-leaf architecture connects the servers with the core network, and has higher flexibility in hyper-scale data centers.
In this case, the leaf switch can be deployed as a bridge between the server and the core network. Each leaf switch connects to all spine switches, which creates a large non-blocking fabric, increasing the level of redundancy and reducing traffic bottlenecks. Performance enhancement: The spine-leaf architecture can effectively avoid traffic congestion by applying protocols or techniques such as transparent interconnection of multiple links TRILL and shortest path bridging SPB.
The spine-leaf architecture can be Layer 2 or Layer 3, so uplinks can be added to the spine switch to expand inter-layer bandwidth and reduce oversubscription to secure network stability.
Scalability: The spine-leaf architecture has multiple links that can carry traffic. The addition of switches will improve scalability and help enterprises to expand their business later. The main difference between spine-leaf architecture and 3-tier architecture lies in the number of network layers, and the traffic they transform is north-south or east-west traffic. As shown in the following figure, the traditional three-tier network architecture consists of three layers: core, aggregation and access.
The access switches are connected to servers and storage devices, the aggregation layer aggregates the access layer traffic, provides redundant connections at the access layer, and the core layer provides network transmission. But this three-layer topology is usually designed for north-south traffic and uses the STP protocol, supporting up to switches.
In the case of continuous expansion of network data, this will inevitably result in port blockage and limited scalability. The spine-leaf architecture is to add east-west traffic parallelism to the north-south network architecture of the backbone, fundamentally solving the bottleneck problem of the traditional three-tier network architecture. It increases the exchange layer under the access layer, and the data transmission between two nodes is completed directly at this layer, thereby diverting backbone network transmission.
Compared with traditional three-tier architecture, the spine-leaf architecture provides a connection through the spine with a single hop between leaves, minimizing any latency and bottle necks.
In spine-leaf architectures, the switch configuration is fixed so that no network changes are required for a dynamic server environment. Before designing a spine-leaf architecture, you need to figure out some important and relevant considerations, especially the oversubscription rate and the size of the spine switch.
Surely, we have also given a detailed example for your reference.